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The Menstrual Cycle

Your menstrual cycle is the process your body goes through from the time you get your first period to when you begin menopause learn more about menopause. Specifically, your menstrual cycle begins on the first day of one period and lasts until the day before your next period starts. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days, but most women aren't that regular. It's not unusual to have a menstrual cycle as long as 35 days or as short as 22 days.

When you hit puberty (for most women, between the ages of 10 and 16), your body starts to produce varying amounts of different hormones that are responsible for particular changes in your body. During your menstrual cycle, the female sex hormone estrogen increases and your ovaries start to develop an egg. Up to 20 follicles start to develop in every cycle, but only one or occasionally two will mature into fully formed eggs ready to be fertilised. Once the egg is released (this process is called ovulation), it travels down your fallopian tubes — the two tubes that connect your ovaries to your womb. Meanwhile, the lining in your uterus (or womb) thickens; this is because your body is anticipating a pregnancy. If an egg and sperm meet, it can lead to fertilisation, resulting in a pregnancy (see more below). Unfertilised eggs only survive for about 24 hours after ovulation. After that point, the lining of your womb will come away and mix with blood to produce a menstrual period that travels out your vagina.

How Long Will My Period Last?

What Causes Period Pain?

Most women experience period pain at some point in their lives. It’s common for period pain to start when you begin your period and last for two to three days. You may suffer from cramps around your stomach or a dull pain around your back and thighs.

Period pain usually occurs when your womb contracts to shed the lining. This prevents the usual flow of blood through nearby blood vessels, which can cause you pain and inflammation.

Simple changes to your lifestyle can help ease your period pain. If you keep fit and healthy throughout your menstrual cycle, it can really make a difference. Smoking may increase your risk of period pain, so it’s best to avoid it during your period or give it up completely. You can try to attempt gentle exercise as it can help to relieve pain and stress. Alternatively, you could consider relaxation techniques such as aromatherapy, massage, acupuncture, meditation and yoga. Heat helps to soothe any discomfort you may have, so try having warm baths or showers or apply hot water bottles and heat pads to painful areas on your body.

There are a range of specific drugs for period pain that are available over the counter. For example, Midol®† products and Maxidol®** are drugs that can help relieve your menstrual pain, and you can buy them without a prescription. To be sure a product is suitable for you, always read and follow the label.

When Should I See a Doctor About Period Problems?

Period problems are a very common reason for women to go to the doctor; one in twenty women will consult a doctor about period-related problems in any given year. If you notice anything unusual (for you) in your cycle or you start to notice bleeding in between periods, make an appointment to see your doctor. It won’t usually be anything to worry about but it’s best to be sure.

If your periods are very heavy and painful, have a chat with your doctor. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatories or suggest you try a contraceptive pill.

When Am I Most Likely to Get Pregnant?

You are most fertile for the five days before you ovulate and then for a couple of days afterward, but the time frame can be difficult to determine and can vary from woman to woman. If you are trying to get pregnant, it’s best to have sex at least every two days. Sperm can live for up to seven days, so having regular sex means sperm is more likely to be available when you ovulate.

†Midol® caplets contain acetaminophen and other ingredients. **Maxidol® contains naproxen sodium.